Molecular diagnostics are increasingly used to guide patient management, from diagnosis to treatment, particularly in the fields of cancer, infectious disease, and congenital abnormalities.
The increased demand for genetic and genomic information has led to the rapid expansion of molecular techniques within clinical laboratories. Flow cytometry is semi-automated study of antigen profile of cells using the Scatchard principle of antigen-antibody binding and fluorochrome-based detection systems. Flow cytometric evaluation of cellular proteomics has become an integral part of the laboratory diagnosis and classification of hematopoietic neoplasms. Recent technical advances in lasers, monoclonal antibodies, fluorochromes, and computer-based color compensation algorithms have expanded the usefulness of flow cytometry. Detection of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry in leukemia’s and lymphomas is incorporated in many treatment protocols.
Molecular diagnostics is the outcome of the fruitful interplay among laboratory medicine, genomics knowledge, and technology in the field of molecular genetics, especially with significant discoveries in the field of molecular genomic technologies. All these factors contribute to the identification and fine characterization of the genetic basis of inherited diseases which, in turn, is vital for the accurate provision of diagnosis.
As molecular diagnostics continues to expand, we discuss its applications using flowcytometry and RT PCR in emerging precision medicines in oncology.